Download Advances in Clinical Neuropsychology: Volume 2 by Roger Williams, Verne S. Caviness Jr. (auth.), Ralph E. PDF

By Roger Williams, Verne S. Caviness Jr. (auth.), Ralph E. Tarter, Gerald Goldstein (eds.)

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In a darkened room a light is placed behind the head, and in the absence of intervening normal brain tissue the fluid filled cavity transmits light. NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN 51 hypoxia-ischemia after thirty weeks gestation, tissue necrosis is associated with an increasing capacity for glial proliferation and scar tissue formation, or sclerosis. Normally formed gyri which are injured become shrunken and firm, imparting an abnormality of surface convolution called uLegypia. Figures 33 and 34 illustrate this process.

Photomicrograph of polymicrogyric cortex as seen with a cresyl violet stain. Roman numerals designate the three cellular zones. B. Representative neurons as drawn from Golgi impregnations. A fibrous astrocyte marks the glial scar at the level of cell destruction. C. Schematic model of presumed synaptic organization of polymicrogyric cortex. There may be a proliferation of axon collaterals among tier I neurons above the scar, and below the scar a tangentially oriented pyramidal cell is contacted by several groups of thalamocortical afferents (Atc) and by corticocortical afferents (Acc) • NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN 47 likely results from a subtotal destructive process causing cell loss, meager gliosis and subsequent tissue distortion.

ROGER WILLIAMS AND VERNE C. CAVINESS, Jr. Photomicrographs of the apical dendritic shafts of layer V pyramidal neurons from a 5 year old child (left), and individuals with mental retardation (center and right). Normally pyramidal apical shafts are invested richly with spines measuring 1-3 microns in length. In cases of mental retardation, spine density may be reduced (center), or spines may exhibit morphological abnormalities, such as the exceptionally long tortuous ones illustrated on the right.

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