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By Gabriel Reynolds

In 385 AH/AD 995 the Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, renowned for his Mu'tazili theological writings, wrote the affirmation of the Proofs of Prophecy, a piece that features a artistic polemic opposed to Christianity. 'Abd al-Jabbar reinterprets the Bible, Church historical past (especially the lives of Paul and Constantine) and Christian perform to argue that Christians replaced the Islamic faith of Jesus. the current paintings starts with an exam of the debatable concept that this polemic used to be borrowed from an unknown Judaeo-Christian team. the writer argues that 'Abd al-Jabbar's polemic is best understood as a reaction to his specific milieu and the on-going inter-religious debates of the medieval Islamic international. through studying the existence and regarded 'Abd al-Jabbar, besides the Islamic, Christian and Jewish antecedants to his polemic, the writer uncovers the intimate dating among sectarian controversy and the improvement of an Islamic doctrine on Christianity.

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Indeed some of the latter may have been crypto-Jewish Christians” (p. 37). Thereafter, Pines goes on to suggest that because a group of Christian converts to Islam mentioned in the Critique used scriptural citations from the Old Testament, “there can be little doubt that these converts to Islam were Jewish Christians who may be supposed (this of course is a mere hypothesis) to have decided to exchange a clandestine existence as official members of the three universally known Christian sects for an equally official profession of the Islamic religion” (p.

Ibràhìm al-Rassì (d. 246/860), author of a famous anti-Christian polemic, reports that Óafß engaged in a formal religious debate with a Coptic Christian. See van Ess, TG, 2:734. 50 Works entitled Radd 'alà l-naßàrà are attributed to both of them. G. Monnot maintains that Îiràr was the first to write a specifically anti-Christian work. See his “Les doctrines des chrétiens dans le ‘Moghni’ de 'Abd al-Jabbàr,” Mélanges de l’Institut dominicain d’études orientales 16 (1983), 14. 51 H. ” “Abù l-Hudhayl al-'Allàf,” EI 2, 1:127.

Gimaret, “Mu'tazila,” 784. 47 Goldziher long ago argued against the notion, in vogue at the time, that Mu'tazilism was the liberal movement of Islam. He concludes, “All that we have learned so far about the nature of the Mu'tazilite movement confers on these religious philosophers the right to lay claim to the name of rationalists. I shall not dispute their right to the name . . But is that enough for calling them liberal? That title we must certainly refuse them. ” Goldziher, Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law, 100–1.

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