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By J. R. Partington

For almost six hundred years, from the battles of the early fourteenth century to the shedding of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, firearms derived from gunpowder and different chemical compounds outlined the frightful quantity of conflict. The gear and fabrics utilized in global battle i'd were conventional to our distant ancestors. during this vintage paintings, first released in 1960, James Riddick Partington offers a global survey of the evolution of incendiary units, Greek hearth, and gunpowder.Greek fireplace, a composition Partington believes was once made from a distilled petroleum fraction and different constituents (but no longer saltpetre), was once such a lot famously utilized in the sieges of Constantinople and the Crusades. Partington strikes from its antecedents—other incendiaries utilized in historic warfare—to eu gunpowder recipe books ( The Latin booklet of fireside, Bellifortis, and Feuerwerkbuch) and the background of infernal machines, mines, canon, small palms, and artillery. His ebook contains chapters on gunpowder and guns in Muslim lands, India, and China—including hearth books, using gunpowder as a propellant, the artillery of the Mughal Emperors, and using saltpetre in explosives. He lines the improvement of gunpowder to eleventh-century China and cites the 1st identified point out and imagine of a firearm in 1326. "The background of gunpowder and firearms has attracted many authors with various pursuits. the overall historian needs to take account of significant innovations effecting revolutions within the lifetime of countries. The historian of technology is anxious typically with the discovery of gunpowder. The historian of expertise examines the improvement within the manufacture of explosives and guns, and how within which gunpowder has came upon purposes within the peaceable arts. the army historian offers almost always with using gunpowder as an explosive and a propellant... and the advance of firearms and their use in conflict. No contemporary e-book in English (or for that subject in any language) has tried a concise survey of the subject."—from the Preface

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Hist. Byzant. Doukas (Ducas), Historia Byzantina. * Some academies and publications have changed their names. in use at the times for which they are quoted. xxxi The references are to those f]]f xxxii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Ency. Islam. Encylclopaedia of Islam. English Histor. Rev. English Historical Review. , folio, folios; f°, folio size of book. Galen («) De compos, med. sec. loc. De Compositione Medicamentorum secundum Locos, {b) De simpl. med. fac. De Temperanientis et Facultatibus Simplicium Medicamentorum.

In defense of Liber Igneum [iz'c]: Arab alchemy, Roger Bacon, and the introduction of gunpowder into the West. Journal for the History of Arabic Science 3: 200-218. Hackett, Jeremiah M. G. 1982. Bacon, Roger. In Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Vol. 2. Edited by J. R. Strayer. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Haldon, J. and M. Byrne. 1977. A possible solution to the problem of Greek fire. Byzantinische Zeitschrifl 70: 91-99. Hall, Bert S. 1996. "The corning of gunpowder and the use of firearms in the Renaissance.

D. 515 to use sulphur {Betov dvvpov) to burn the ships of Vitalianus, but Zonaras®® says Proklos the Soothsayer {oveipoKplrTjs;) used mirrors. D. ®® ANCIENT FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Ancient fire extinguishers were water, sand, dry or moist earth, manure, urine (which contains phosphates), and especially vinegar, which was considered to be particularly cold. Plutarch®" said vinegar "conquers every flame" {ovSev Se rcov aa^eoTiqploiv o^ovs nvpl /xaxi/xcorepov), ascribing this effect to the extreme tenuity of its parts, whilst Pliny®i says a whirlwind may be checked by sprinkling with vinegar, which is of a very cold nature (frigidissima est natura).

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