By Peter A. Scholle
This quantity expands and improves the AAPG 1978 vintage, a colour Illustrated advisor to Carbonate Rock materials, Textures, Cements, and Porosities (AAPG Memoir 27). Carbonate petrography may be very complex. altering assemblages of organisms via time, coupled with the randomness of thin-section cuts via complicated shell types, upload to the trouble of opting for skeletal grains. in addition, simply because many fundamental carbonate grains are composed of volatile minerals (especially aragonite and high-Mg calcite), diagenetic alteration usually is kind of wide in carbonate rocks. the range of inorganic and biogenic carbonate mineralogy via time, despite the fact that, complicates prediction of styles of diagenetic alteration.This publication is designed to aid take care of such demanding situations. It features a wide selection of examples of regularly encountered skeletal and nonskeletal grains, cements, materials, and porosity varieties. It contains vast new tables of age distributions, mineralogy, morphologic features, environmental implications and keys to grain identity. It additionally includes a variety of noncarbonate grains, that happen as accent minerals in carbonate rocks or that can supply very important biostratigraphic or paleoenvironmental details in carbonate strata. With this consultant, scholars and different employees with little formal petrographic education can be in a position to study skinny sections or acetate peels less than the microscope and interpret the most rock ingredients and their depositional and diagenetic heritage.
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Extra info for A Color Guide to the Petrography of Carbonate Rocks: Grains, Textures, Porosity, Diagenesis (AAPG Memoir) (Aapg Memoir)
The individual quartz grains are held together with an organic cement. 7 mm Up. , Texas The same types of agglutinated (arenaceous) foraminifers seen in the previous photograph, but here shown under cross-polarized light, allowing the quartzose nature of the walls to be seen more clearly. It often requires careful observation to distinguish arenaceous foraminifers from concentrations of terrigenous grains in burrows or other sedimentary structures. The chambered shape of foraminifers clearly is a key to their recognition.
Coralline red algae were important sediment formers from the Jurassic to the Recent. Characteristic structures of a representative segmented red alga Not all coralline algae are encrusters or rigidly branched — articulated forms, such as the Corallina sp. shown here in a diagram adapted from Wray (1977), also are common. Their calcified segments disarticulate upon death and are contributed to the sediment. Recent sediment, St. Peter’s Parrish, Barbados This modern crustose coralline red algal grain shows differentiation of cellular structure in inner and outer layers.
Individual nummulitid foraminifers can reach a maximum diameter of 19 cm (and commonly are 46 cm in diameter). The excellent preservation of these tests indicates that they originally has a high- or low Mg calcite composition. 4 mm CHAPTER 2: FORAMINIFERS Mid. , Ponce-Coamo area, Puerto Rico This limestone is packed with orbitoid foraminifers — discocyclinids — as well as numerous red algal fragments. Discocyclinids are benthic foraminifers belonging to the Superfamily Orbitoidacea, are restricted to Eocene deposits, reach cm-size, and have optically-radial hyaline calcitic tests.